Systems and methods for securing cardiovascular tissue, including via asymmetric electrodes, are disclosed. A device in accordance with one embodiment includes a catheter having a proximal end and a distal end, with a working portion positioned toward the distal end and being elongated along a terminal axis. The device can further include an energy transmitter (e.g., an electrode) at the working portion of the catheter, with the energy transmitter tapered inwardly toward the terminal axis in a distal direction. The energy transmitter can be asymmetric relative to the terminal axis. In further particular embodiments, other components of the catheter (e.g., an inflatable member, guidewire conduit, and/or catheter bend angle) can also be asymmetric relative to the terminal axis, and in still further particular embodiments, some or all of the foregoing elements can have particular alignments relative to each other.